Research papers have often been confused with argumentative essays; while they both do share few similar properties, they are absolutely different from each other. The basic difference lies in their skeleton structure, where essays follow the basic the intro, body, and tail format, however, research based papers are more descriptive and comprehensive in nature, where strategies are applied, specific pattern is followed and conclusions are drawn.
When it comes down to the basic difference between a research paper and research proposal, proposal outlines the purpose of the research, why the research is needed, how it would contribute to the proposed field of study and other similar aspects. Also, the intentions, goals, objectives, expectations, and strategies that would be applied and projected in order to define and draw anticipated outcomes; you can safely say that research proposals are the prerequisites of research papers, which obviously no one would deny.
The proposal should seem like a forward looking document that would encourage readers/academic officers/examiner/research committee that your research has the potential, and whether it should it be pursued for further evaluation or not. Moreover, research proposals are always drafted before the study begins. So, by clearly stating the research methodology, design structure and what approach and logic researcher is going to use, intended results can be achieved. Time is key to conducting any research, however projects timeline, budget and qualifications/certifications must clearly be mentioned in order to create a comprehensive image, for final approval.
On the other hand, research papers are the detailed and comprehensive documents where strategies are practically applied, arguments are established in sequential way and outcomes are recorded. These research documents contains the step by step process, which convinces readers that the right form of approach is being used for drawing conclusions. furthermore, research documents are longer than research proposals because it explains everything in detail right from the beginning till conclusions are recorded and referenced sources are cited.
It kicks off with introducing and explaining the background of the research, purpose, and theories conducted, a solid plan or outline, data collection sources and documents, experiments and attestation, conclusion(s) derived from data collected and finally the references used by the researcher.